Stages of Writing Development




Preliterate: Drawing
  • uses drawing to stand for writing
  • believes that drawings / writing is communication of a purposeful message
  • read their drawings as if there were writing on them

Preliterate: Scribbling
  • scribbles but intends it as writing
  • scribbling resembles writing
  • holds and uses pencil like an adult

Early Emergent: Letter-like forms
  • shapes in writing actually resemble letters
  • shapes are not actually letters
  • look like poorly formed letters, but are unique creations

Emergent: Random-letters or letter strings
  • uses letter sequences perhaps learned from his/her name
  • may write the same letters in many ways
  • long strings of letters in random order

Transitional: Writing via invented spelling
  • creates own spelling when conventional spelling is not known
  • one letter may represent an entire syllable
  • words may overlay
  • may not use proper spacing
  • as writing matures, more words are spelled conventionally
  • as writing matures, perhaps only one or two letters invented or omitted

Fluency: Conventional spelling
  • usually resembles adult writing